To answer what is Geophysics is not so easy; they exist several definitions to describe this science, but basically we can summarize it with two meanings: the first one talks about the characterization of the geological structures, including aspects as contamination or the groundwater condition. This is very useful to determinate if the human actions are compatible with an ecosystem or if this surface is able to bear other kind of incursions. The other definition explains that Geophysics is an investigation of the conditions of this part beneath the ground of the Earth, but analysing the physical surface instead.
Both definitions, in spite meaning different types of investigation related to the subsurface of the Earth, have something in common: the analysations are done following non-invasive investigations. That is possible even in the first place through actions like lateral and vertical mapping of their variations using remotely sensed machines with a very depurated technology. Having this knowledge and the mechanisms to perform these actions in an effective form is the purpose of the specialized laboratories, plenty of professionals with the necessary knowing and abilities.
Geophysics is a very delicate discipline that needs to be developed without invasive techniques like the excavation, although there are some kind of exceptions like those related to the analysis of holes already drilled to have access. This science and application not only has a direct relation to environment, but also has a connection with other applications related such as the exploration of minerals and petroleum, a great source of energy destined to various fields.
The work of the laboratories focused on this discipline is very important; the subsurface of the Earth is the basis of a lot of structures and the home of different sources of energy and water, all of them essential to the development of the human beings actions. That is way this professionals will have to investigate and analyse different types of circumstances that affect the correct development of the exploration and usage of this environment: infrastructures, archeology, dam safety, possible contamination of the groundwater and geohazards, etcetera.
The type of technologies that implicates the development of the geophysical surveys is very sophisticated and includes machines like side scan sonars and magnetometers than allow them to obtain a very precise characterization, being able to detect the needs and operate to develop installations or submerged structures, among other uses. The obtained data has a lot of different usages, for example profiling geological features, to investigate the possibility of underwater facilities or detecting geohazards able to cause a great damage on the surface.