Fake news: Intentional spread of false information regarding world events and politics.

For example, recent misinformation that the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine can cause autism led to multiple declarations of public health emergencies, in accordance with theUN.
Reactions to the recent US election, for instance, perfectly highlight the dangers of spreading mis- and disinformation online.
Donald Trump’s baselesstweetsthat the 2020 US election was fraudulent were eventually censored by Twitter.
However, his continuous lambasting of the security of US postal votes, coupled with accusations that media outlets spread fake news proved enough to convince many Americans of Democrat foul play.
This resulted in widespread anger across America, with Trump’s supporterstoting gunsoutside polling stations, intimidating counters, and protesting to “stop the count”.
The spread of fake news–be it intentional or unintentional–poses three significant threats to our human rights.

When social media marketing influences elections and health campaigns , governments and international agencies demand social media marketing owners to take necessary actions to combat misinformation .
Platforms begun to regulate bots which were used to spread misinformation.
Facebook announced the filtering of these algorithms to combat misinformation, down-ranking the post flagged by their fact-checkers that will reduce the popularity of the post or page.

She makes it clear that her document and list are; based on her opinion, designed for educational purposes, not definitive, rather than all sources are believed ‘fake’.
The tendency to verify information predicated on one’s preexisting beliefs.
Mal-information – true information shared intentionally to cause harm.
Over 80% of EU citizens say they see fake news both as an issue because of their country and for democracy in general.
Teachers must be well-trained in the subject to empower students with the required competences to critically understand and assess information reported by all types of media.
Retaliation is prohibited by UO policy.
Questions may be referred to the Title IX Coordinator, Office of Affirmative Action and Equal Opportunity, or to any office for Civil Rights.


These cognitive accounts usually do not explicitly consider the influence of social and affective mechanisms on the CIE.
One socio-affective factor is source credibility, the perceived trustworthiness and expertise of the sources providing the misinformation and correction.
The PRI political party has been reported to use fake news since before Peña Nieto.
Common tactics included spreading such propaganda through open radio and television networks.
These tactics were effective in Mexico, because newspaper readership is low and cable television is largely limited by the center classes; consequently, the country’s two major television networks – Televisa and TV Azteca – exert a substantial influence in nation-wide politics.
Televisa owns approximately two-thirds of the programming on Mexico’s TV channels, rendering it not only Mexico’s largest television network, also the biggest media network in the Spanish-speaking world.
In 2015, BBC News reported on fake stories, using unrelated photographs and fraudulent captions, shared online to get the Rohingya.

  • The tendency to confirm information predicated on one’s preexisting beliefs.
  • These effects raise profound challenges for the atrocity prevention community, as discussed in the following section.
  • In early May 2018, Belgian Minister for the Digital Agenda Alexander De Croo announced two initiatives aimed at curbing the spread of misinformation online.
  • Furthermore, technological advances including the advent of social media marketing enable fake news stories to proliferate efficiently as people share increasingly more information online.
  • The sharing of text, images, videos, or links online, for instance, allows information to go viral within hours.

In 2022 this will turn into a strengthen co-regulation scheme, with responsibility shared between your regulators and companies signatories to the code.
It will complement earlier Digital Services Act agreed by the 27-country EU which already includes a section on combating disinformation.
In 2017 media activists started a website Konspiratori.cz maintaining a listing of conspiracy and fake news outlets in Czech.

Conflict such as crises, calamities, fraud, scandals, among others that arrest attention of individuals; g.
Audience, which explains the heterogeneous receivers of news in the media; h.

Fake News And The Spread Of Misinformation: A Research Roundup

selecting the literature for review.
The original stage of the study involved exploring research papers from relevant databases to understand the volumes and option of research articles.
We extended the literature search to interdisciplinary databases too.
We gathered articles from Web of Science, ACM digital library, AIS electronic library, EBSCO host business source premier, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Springer link.
Apart from this, a manual search was performed in Information Systems scholars’ basket of journals to ensure we didn’t miss any articles from these journals.
We have also preferred articles which have Data Science and Information Systems background.

This accelerates the spread of misinformation as people tend to fill these details gap with misinformation or ‘improvised news’ .
The broadcasting power of social media marketing and re-sharing of misinformation could weaken and slow down rescue operations .

However, he asserts, reason, the scientific method, fact-checking and critical thinking skills alone are insufficient to counter the broad scope of false information.
Overlooked may be the power of confirmation bias, motivated reasoning along with other cognitive biases that may seriously distort the countless areas of mental ‘immunity’ , particularly in dysfunctional societies.
A recently available study by Randy Stein and colleagures demonstrates conservatives value personal stories (non-scientific, intuitive or experiential evidence) a lot more than do liberals , and therefore perhaps may be less swayed by scientific evidence.
This study however only tested responses to apolitical messages.
Support the role of local experts, especially from traditionally marginalized communities including in the Global South, in knowledge production around SMM.
Provide support and anonymity when in repressive or violent contexts.
Speak openly about the distinction between news aggregators as sources of information and a lower presence of primary or investigative news reporting.

The Chinese government accused Western media organisations of bias, in a move apparently inspired by President Trump.
On March 16, 2020, Romanian President Klaus Iohannis signed a crisis decree, giving authorities the energy to remove, report or close websites spreading “fake news” concerning the COVID-19 pandemic, without possibility to appeal.
In early April 2020, Berlin politician Andreas Geisel alleged that a shipment of 200,000 N95 masks that it had ordered from American producer 3M’s China facility were intercepted in Bangkok and diverted to the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic.
This revelation outraged the Berlin opposition, whose CDU parliamentary group leader Burkard Dregger accused Geisel of “deliberately misleading Berliners” to be able “to cover up its inability to obtain protective equipment”.

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